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Table 1 Main S&T indicators of the EECA countries

From: Enhancing science and technology cooperation between the EU and Eastern Europe as well as Central Asia: a critical reflection on the White Paper from a S&T policy perspective

EECA countries R&D expenditure as % of GDP (GERD) Number of research organizations Number of R&D personnel
Central Asian countries Kazakhstana 0.16 424 17,021
Kyrgyzstanb 0.21 84 5,125
Tajikistanc 0.06 67 5,617
Turkmenistan n/a 46h 3,689j
Uzbekistand 0.20 202 34,587
Eastern European countries Armenia 0.27 83 6,926k
Azerbaijan 0.2 146 22,500
Belarus 0.65f 446 20,571
Georgiae 0.4 31 3,200
Moldova 0.42 38 4,764l
Russia 1.24 3,536 742,433m
Ukraine 0.82g 1,303i 141,000n
  1. aAccording to the Kazakhstan Agency for Statistics. http://www.stat.kz; bNational Statistic Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic, 2010; cUNESCO Science Report 2010; dCommittee for Coordination of Science and Technology Development of Uzbekistan 2010; eSource: SRNSF; fScience, Innovation and Technology in the Republic of Belarus – 2008. Statistical book, State Committee on Science and Technology, Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of Belarus, 2009; gState Statistics Service of Ukraine: Science and Technology Activities in Ukraine - Statistical Data Collection (Державна Служба Статистики України: Наукова та інноваційна діяльність в Україні - Статистичний збірник, ДП ‘Інформаційно-видавничий центр Держстату України’) Kiev, 2011, p. 178 (data for 2010); hEstimated; iState Statistics Service of Ukraine: Science and Technology Activities in Ukraine - Statistical Data Collection (Державна Служба Статистики України: Наукова та інноваційна діяльність в Україні - Статистичний збірник, ДП ‘Інформаційно-видавничий центр Держстату України’) Kiev, 2011, p. 10 (data for 2010); jStatistical Yearbook of Turkmenistan, Ashgabat, 2010, p.160; kNational Statistical Service of RA, http://armstat.am/ (data for 2009); lThe Court of Accounts of Moldova Report, http://lex.justice.md/viewdoc.php?action=view&view=doc&id=338497&lang=1; mNumber of researchers is 369, 237 (2009); nState Statistics Service of Ukraine: Science and Technology Activities in Ukraine - Statistical Data Collection (Державна Служба Статистики України: Наукова та інноваційна діяльність в Україні - Статистичний збірник, ДП ‘Інформаційно-видавничий центр Держстату України’) Kiev, 2011, p. 31 (data for 2010); number of researchers is 89,600.