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Table 1 Literature overview

From: Research and development from the bottom up - introduction of terminologies for new product development in emerging markets

Hits in BSC and Google Scholar Hits Adjusted Number of academic articles
Jugaad 77 68 20
Frugal innovation 50 43 12
Frugal engineering 66 59 14
Constraint-based innovation 2 2 2
Gandhian innovation 5 2 0
Grassroots innovation 70 57 30
Indigenous innovation + emerging marketsa 50 30 13
Catalytic innovation 7 4 3
Reverse innovation 147 98 25
Total 474 363 119
  1. Date of investigation 23 July 2012. aThe term ‘indigenous innovation’ produced a huge number of search results (457). After the screening, we identified a lot of unrelated papers to our focus on product development in emerging markets. Thus, it was accompanied by the search item ‘emerging markets.’