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Table 3 Proposed definitions

From: Research and development from the bottom up - introduction of terminologies for new product development in emerging markets

Term Proposed definition
Jugaad An improvisational approach to solving one’s own or others’ problems in a creative way, at a low cost, in a short amount of time, and without serious taxonomy or discipline applied by people at the BoP as a result of poverty and exigency
Frugal innovation A derived management approach, based on jugaad, which focuses on the development, production, and product management of resource-saving products and services for people at the BoP by achieving a sufficient level of taxonomy and avoiding needless costs
Frugal engineering/constraint-based innovation Describes a process-oriented approach to adapt existing technologies to local challenges by dint of the integration of the local society in order to reduce inherent development costs and time
Gandhian innovation An approach that takes advantage from the adaption of existing technologies by integrating them into local context or/and establishing local expertise by spillovers through collaborations in order to increase social wealth of people from the BoP
Catalytic innovation An approach that focuses on social change by breaking down existing social and economic structures and creating new market structures which involves new development approaches of systematic, sustainable, and system-shifting kind
Grassroots innovation Represents a bottom-up development approach that includes social integrity and local civilians as inventors by connecting peoples through social or technical networks in order to develop ecologically and socially acceptable products and services
Indigenous innovation Considers technology transfers, predominantly technology inflows, from developed to emerging countries and their effects on local entrepreneurs at the BoP
Reverse innovation Represents the development of new products in and for emerging countries by DMFs or EMF which will be introduced equally in developed markets if the demand in developed markets is identified. The extreme case of reverse innovation is the development of new products in emerging countries which are only introduced in developed markets