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Table 9 Descriptive statistics of motivational variables by spin-off creation intention

From: Examining the differences between the motivations of traditional and entrepreneurial scientists

  Traditional scientists Entrepreneurial scientists Total
Motivational variables Importance (based on means) N Mean Std. deviation Importance (based on means) N Mean Std. deviation Importance (based on means) N Mean Std. deviation
M4—to obtain financial resources for further research 1 265 4.29 0.8923 1 30 4.57 0.6789 1 353 4.32 0.8894
M8—to ensure direct control over the commercialization of my invention 6 246 4.10 0.9948 2 29 4.52 0.6336 6 331 4.10 0.9892
M2—to ensure an ecosystem that is more flexible than the university for the further development of my invention 2 237 4.27 0.9583 3 30 4.50 0.9738 2 316 4.31 0.9428
M1—to collect industrial feedback on the applicability of my invention 3 245 4.20 1.0065 4 30 4.47 0.7303 4 329 4.19 0.9963
M10—to secure jobs for young researchers at my spin-off company 7 260 4.01 1.0076 5 30 4.43 0.7739 7 348 4.03 0.9980
M3—to increase my personal income from my entrepreneurial activities 4 267 4.20 0.8895 6 30 4.40 0.6747 3 354 4.23 0.8841
M9—to benefit society with my invention 5 265 4.15 1.0237 7 30 4.30 0.8769 5 355 4.19 1.0081
M11—to secure a job if my university position is terminated 8 253 3.72 1.2858 8 29 4.00 1.1019 8 339 3.80 1.2526
M5—to increase my scientific reputation through entrepreneurship 10 261 3.03 1.2400 9 30 3.33 1.1842 10 351 3.08 1.2543
M7—to demonstrate the practical relevance of my research to family/friends 11 261 2.67 1.2153 10 30 3.33 1.4700 11 352 2.77 1.2741
6—to increase my social reputation through entrepreneurship 9 262 3.08 1.2369 11 30 3.27 1.0807 9 352 3.10 1.2407
  1. Source: authors’ compilation