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Fig. 1 | Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Fig. 1

From: Does innovation promote economic growth? Evidence from European countries

Fig. 1

Conceptual framework of the causality between innovation and per capita economic growth. Note 1: GDP is per capita economic growth and INN is innovation and used as a proxy for PAR, PAN, RDE, RRD, HTE, and STJ. Note 2: PAR is number of patents by residents, PAN is number of patents by non-residents, RDE is research and development expenditure, RRD is the researchers in research and development activities, HTE is the high-technology exports, and STJ is the scientific and technical journal articles

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