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Table 1 Definition of variables

From: Does innovation promote economic growth? Evidence from European countries

Variable code Variable definition
GDP Per capita economic growth: expansion of a country’s economy, expressed in per capita gross domestic product.
PAR Patents filed by residents: expressed in numbers per thousand population.
PAN Patents filed by non-residents: expressed in numbers per thousand population.
RDE Research and development expenditure: expressed as a percentage of real gross domestic product.
RRD Researchers in research and development activities: expressed in numbers per thousand population.
HTE High-technology exports: expressed as a percentage of real gross domestic product.
STJ Scientific and technical journal articles: expressed in numbers per thousand population.
  1. Variables above are defined in the World Development Indicators of World Bank