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Table 11 Summary of Granger causality test

From: Does innovation promote economic growth? Evidence from European countries

Countries Nature of Granger causality between
Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6
PAR and GDP PAN and GDP RDE and GDP RRD and GDP HTE and GDP STJ and GDP
Austria FBH SLH DFH SLH NEH DFH
Belgium SLH SLH SLH SLH SLH DFH
Czech Republic DFH SLH DFH SLH NEH NEH
Denmark DFH FBH SLH DFH NEH DFH
Finland SLH DFH SLH DFH FBH SLH
France SLH SLH SLH SLH SLH SLH
Germany SLH DFH SLH SLH FBH DFH
Greece SLH DFH NEH FBH
Hungary DFH FBH SLH SLH DFH SLH
Ireland DFH FBH DFH DFH SLH DFH
Italy SLH NEH SLH SLH DFH DFH
Netherlands SLH SLH DFH DFH SLH FBH
Norway DFH DFH SLH DFH DFH FBH
Poland FBH NEH SLH DFH DFH FBH
Portugal SLH FBH SLH SLH DFH FBH
Romania SLH SLH DFH FBH DFH SLH
Spain FBH SLH DFH DFH DFH SLH
Sweden FBH SLH SLH NEH SLH FBH
United Kingdom SLH FBH SLH SLH SLH DFH
European panel FBH DFH FBH FBH FBH DFH
  1. Case 1: cointegration between PAR and GDP; case 2: cointegration between PAN and GDP; case 3: cointegration between RDE and GDP; case 4: cointegration between RRD and GDP; case 5: cointegration between HTE and GDP; case 6: cointegration between STJ and GDP. PAR is number of patents by residents, PAN is number of patents by non-residents, RDE is research and development expenditure, RRD is researchers in research and development activities, HTE is high-technology exports, STJ is scientific and technical journal articles, and GDP is per capita economic growth. SLH indicates the unidirectional causality from innovation to economic growth, DFH indicates the unidirectional causality from economic growth to innovation, FBH indicates the bidirectional causality between innovation and economic growth, and NEH indicates no causal flow between innovation and economic growth. Results are derived on the basis of Tables 9 and 10 results