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Table 12 Summary of Granger causality test results

From: Does innovation promote economic growth? Evidence from European countries

Supply-leading hypothesis of innovation-growth nexus Demand-following hypothesis of innovation-growth nexus
Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 1 Case 2 Case 3
  Austria     Austria
Belgium Belgium Belgium    Czech Republic
  Czech Republic   Czech Republic   Ireland
   Denmark    
Finland   Finland Denmark   Netherlands
France France France   Finland Romania
Germany   Germany   Germany Spain
Greece   Hungary   Greece  
Italy Italy Italy Hungary   
Netherlands Netherlands Norway Ireland   
   Poland Norway Norway  
   Portugal   European panel  
Portugal   Sweden    
Romania Romania United Kingdom    
  Spain     
  Sweden     
United Kingdom      
Feedback hypothesis of innovation-growth nexus Neutrality hypothesis of innovation-growth nexus
Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 1 Case 2 Case 3
Austria      
  Denmark Finland    
   Greece    
  Hungary    Italy  
  Ireland Ireland    
   Netherlands    
Poland      
  Portugal    Poland  
Spain      
Sweden      
  United Kingdom     
European panel   European panel    
  1. Case 1: cointegration between PAR and GDP; case 2: cointegration between PAN and GDP; case 3: cointegration between RDE and GDP. PAR is the number of patents by residents, PAN is the number of patents by non-residents, RDE is research and development expenditure, and GDP is per capita economic growth. Results are derived on the basis of Table 11 results