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Table 13 Summary of Granger causality test results

From: Does innovation promote economic growth? Evidence from European countries

Supply-leading hypothesis of innovation-growth nexus Demand-following hypothesis of innovation-growth nexus
Case 4 Case 5 Case 6 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6
Austria      Austria
Belgium Belgium     Belgium
Czech Republic   Finland Czech Republic   
France France France Denmark   Denmark
Germany   Hungary Finland   
Greece     Finland  
Hungary      Germany
Italy Italy    Hungary Ireland
Portugal Netherlands   Hungary Norway Italy
United Kingdom    Ireland Poland  
    Netherlands Portugal  
  Romania Romania Norway Romania  
  Spain Spain Poland Spain United Kingdom
  Sweden   Portugal   European panel
Feedback hypothesis of innovation-growth nexus Neutrality hypothesis of innovation-growth nexus
Case 4 Case 5 Case 6 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6
Austria    United Kingdom Austria  
  Finland Netherlands   Czech Republic Czech Republic
  Germany Norway   Denmark  
   Poland   Greece  
  Ireland Portugal    
   Sweden    
Poland      
  Portugal     
Spain      
Sweden      
  United Kingdom     
European panel European panel     
  1. Case 4: cointegration between RRD and GDP; Case 5: cointegration between HTE and GDP; Case 6: cointegration between STJ and GDP. RRD is researchers in research and development activities, HTE is high-technology exports, STJ is scientific and technical journal articles, and GDP is per capita economic growth. Results are derived on the basis of Table 11 results