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Table 3 Trend of innovation (per thousand population) in European countries

From: Does innovation promote economic growth? Evidence from European countries

Countries RRD HTE STJ
P1 P2 P3 P4 P1 P2 P3 P4 P1 P2 P3 P4
Austria 0.29 0.41 0.51 0.45 24.7 49.1 48.7 36.9 0.43 0.57 0.59 0.50
Belgium 0.27 0.30 0.34 0.30 58.0 67.4 87.6 73.2 0.55 0.62 0.68 0.61
Czech Republic 0.12 0.19 0.27 0.19 0.88 2.56 4.79 2.84 0.23 0.30 0.39 0.30
Denmark 0.63 0.89 1.21 0.95 4.24 6.09 5.28 5.01 0.82 0.93 1.01 0.89
Finland 1.17 1.45 1.42 1.37 67.8 70.8 34.3 48.3 0.90 0.95 0.93 0.85
France 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.05 38.1 38.2 49.2 37.9 0.51 0.49 0.49 0.48
Germany 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04 35.5 54.9 63.9 45.7 0.51 0.53 0.55 0.50
Greece 0.12 0.15 0.20 0.15 4.77 4.78 5.15 4.01 0.26 0.37 0.43 0.29
Hungary 0.11 0.15 0.21 0.16 0.57 0.24 0.64 0.44 0.19 0.24 0.24 0.22
Ireland 0.54 0.64 0.73 0.64 294.8 201.6 134.6 201.2 0.38 0.48 0.64 0.43
Italy 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.02 15.6 16.1 17.4 16.4 0.35 0.42 0.45 0.41
Netherlands 0.16 0.18 0.19 0.18 73.3 102.2 96.2 86.9 0.75 0.81 0.91 0.81
Norway 0.92 1.01 1.12 1.07 1.37 1.51 1.57 1.53 0.69 0.76 0.92 0.85
Poland 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 1.04 2.09 5.65 2.98 0.13 0.17 0.19 0.16
Portugal 0.14 0.20 0.41 0.24 8.51 15.5 10.4 11.9 0.14 0.27 0.40 0.26
Romania 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05 4.70 3.22 6.10 4.59 0.04 0.04 0.07 0.05
Spain 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.05 11.3 10.5 11.8 11.1 0.34 0.41 0.47 0.41
Sweden 0.51 0.61 0.56 0.59 6.51 5.26 4.52 4.98 1.12 1.10 1.02 1.06
United Kingdom 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.06 68.9 60.1 34.7 54.1 0.80 0.76 0.74 0.77
European panel# 0.27 0.33 0.40 0.33 52.2 38.2 34.5 44.1 1.01 0.57 0.62 0.53
  1. RRD is researchers in research and development activities, HTE is high-technology exports, and STJ is scientific and technical journal articles. P1 is 1989–2000, P2 is 2001–2007, P3 is 2008–2014, and P4 is 1989–2014
  2. #The figures are average of all 19 European countries