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Table 4 Descriptive statistics of the variables

From: Does innovation promote economic growth? Evidence from European countries

Countries Variables
PAR PAN RDE RRD THE STJ
Austria −0.57/0.03 −1.44/0.07 0.38/0.06 −0.36/0.08 0.68/0.08 −0.24/0.02
Belgium −1.27/0.05 −1.81/0.13 0.29/0.02 −0.51/0.03 0.85/0.07 −0.20/0.03
Czech Republic −1.20/0.06 −0.10/0.73 0.08/0.06 −0.75/0.15 −0.69/0.30 −0.53/0.10
Denmark −0.53/0.04 −1.50/0.08 0.40/0.07 −0.04/0.11 −0.25/0.06 −0.03/0.03
Finland −0.41/0.07 −1.42/0.16 0.53/0.04 0.13/0.05 0.77/0.15 −0.03/0.01
France −0.65/0.01 −1.35/0.14 0.34/0.01 −1.29/0.05 0.60/0.05 −0.31/0.01
Germany −0.24/0.02 −0.86/0.05 0.40/0.03 −1.40/0.05 069/0.12 −0.28/0.02
Greece −1.40/0.13 −2.57/0.18 −0.24/0.05 −0.85/0.11 −0.35/0.10 −0.47/0.12
Hungary −1.14/0.04 −1.26/0.80 −0.04/0.09 −0.82/0.11 −1.32/0.25 −0.64/0.04
Ireland −0.69/0.10 −1.67/0.19 0.11/0.06 −0.20/0.05 1.31/0.14 −0.32/0.10
Italy −0.86/0.05 −1.74/0.12 0.06/0.05 −1.60/0.07 0.22/0.03 −0.38/0.05
Netherlands −0.84/0.03 −1.54/0.15 0.28/0.02 −0.75/0.04 0.98/0.06 −0.08/0.03
Norway −0.60/0.04 −0.15/0.35 0.21/0.02 0.01/0.03 −0.82/0.02 −0.10/0.10
Poland −1.19/0.07 −1.40/0.57 −0.20/0.05 −1.40/0.03 −0.69/0.30 −0.79/0.08
Portugal −1.79/0.31 −2.29/0.18 −0.05/0.16 −0.68/0.19 0.05/0.17 −0.62/0.19
Romania −1.28/0.11 −2.14/0.49 −0.34/0.08 −1.35/0.06 −0.37/0.17 −1.31/0.11
Spain −1.17/0.05 −2.10/0.18 0.03/0.09 −1.30/0.10 0.03/0.04 −0.40/0.06
Sweden −0.51/0.12 −1.27/0.17 0.56/0.02 −0.24/0.04 −0.29/0.07 0.03/0.02
United Kingdom −0.51/0.06 −0.82/0.10 0.24/0.01 −1.24/0.07 0.74/0.12 −0.12/0.01
European panel# −0.89/0.42 −1.47/0.62 0.16/0.26 −0.79/0.53 0.13/0.74 −0.37/0.34
  1. PAR is number of patents by residents, PAN is number of patents by non-residents, RDE is research and development expenditure, RRD is researchers in research and development activities, HTE is high-technology exports, STJ is scientific and technical journal articles, and GDP is per capita economic growth. Values reported here are natural logs of the variables
  2. #The reported statistics are calculated at the panel level