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Table 8 Summary of cointegration test results

From: Does innovation promote economic growth? Evidence from European countries

Cointegrated status
Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6
Austria (2) Austria (2) Austria (2) Austria (0) Austria (0) Austria (2)
Belgium (1) Belgium (0) Belgium (0) Belgium (0) Belgium (0) Belgium (2)
CR (0) CR (0) CR (0) CR (0) CR (0) CR (0)
Denmark (0) Denmark (2) Denmark (1) Denmark (0) Denmark (1) Denmark (0)
Finland (0) Finland (2) Finland (2) Finland (0) Finland (1) Finland (2)
France (1) France (1) France (0) France (1) France (0) France (2)
Germany (2) Germany (1) Germany (0) Germany (0) Germany (1) Germany (2)
Greece (0) Greece (0) Greece (0) Greece (0) Greece (0) Greece (0)
Hungary (0) Hungary (1) Hungary (0) Hungary (1) Hungary (1) Hungary (0)
Ireland (0) Ireland (0) Ireland (0) Ireland (0) Ireland (0) Ireland (0)
Italy (0) Italy (0) Italy (0) Italy (0) Italy (1) Italy (2)
Netherlands (0) Netherlands (2) Netherlands (1) Netherlands (0) Netherlands (2) Netherlands (1)
Norway (1) Norway (0) Norway (2) Norway (2) Norway (1) Norway (0)
Poland (0) Poland (0) Poland (0) Poland (1) Poland (0) Poland (0)
Portugal (1) Portugal (0) Portugal (0) Portugal (0) Portugal (0) Portugal (2)
Romania (0) Romania (0) Romania (1) Romania (2) Romania (2) Romania (0)
Spain (0) Spain (0) Spain (2) Spain (2) Spain (2) Spain (2)
Sweden (1) Sweden (0) Sweden (0) Sweden (0) Sweden (2) Sweden (2)
UK (0) UK (2) UK (2) UK (2) UK (1) UK (2)
EP (2) EP (2) EP (2) EP (2) EP (2) EP (2)
  1. Case 1: cointegration between PAR and GDP; case 2: cointegration between PAN and GDP; case 3: cointegration between RDE and GDP; case 4: cointegration between RRD and GDP; case 5: cointegration between HTE and GDP; case 6: cointegration between STJ and GDP. PAR is number of patents by residents, PAN is number of patents by non-residents, RDE is research and development expenditure, RRD is researchers in research and development activities, HTE is high-technology exports, STJ is scientific and technical journal articles, and GDP is per capita economic growth. 0 stands for absence of cointegration between innovation (PAR/PAN/RDE/RRD/HTE/STJ) and per capita economic growth, 1 stands for presence of one cointegrating vector between innovation (PAR/PAN/RDE/RRD/HTE/STJ) and per capita economic growth, and 2 stands for presence of two cointegrating vectors between innovation (PAR/PAN/RDE/RRD/HTE/STJ) and per capita economic growth. Parentheses indicate number of cointegrating vector (s). Results are derived on the basis of Tables 6 and 7 results
  2. CR Czech Republic, UK United Kingdom, EP European panel