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Fig. 1 | Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Fig. 1

From: Leadership in innovation projects: an illustration of the reflective practitioner and the relation to organizational learning

Fig. 1

Reflective practitioner model integrated with organizational learning model. 1 Tacit ‘knowing in action’ to select an action and execute a task. A ‘reflection-on-action’ to assess match (not necessarily consciously) or mismatch (consciously). 2 (Immediately) experience surprise due to unexpected outcome. 3 Assess next options as ‘reflection within the action-present’; select an available single-loop action as alternative (norms and governing values remain unchanged) or to design a new action. 4 Select as a newly to design action a double-loop or triple-loop action by means of ‘reflection-in-action’; in case of triple-loop action (serendipity, reckless risk taking), a paradigmatic change is caused. 5 Test the action and gather data to validate; norms and governing values are adapted. B Pre-evaluate the effect of the action by ‘ante-action-reflection’ (does not happen with triple loop untested or spontaneous actions); execute the task and return to A

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