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Table 2 Variables in the research

From: Innovation at country-level: association between economic development and patents

Economic indicators Description
 Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita ($) US $ current PPP, current prices
 Gross national income (GNI) per capita ($) US $ current PPP, current prices
 Labor cost index (base year 2010=100) Measures changes in average hourly labor cost, taking into account not only price changes but also changes in the composition and the characteristics of the labor input; Calculated by dividing the labor costs by the number of hours worked. Labor costs are made up of costs for wages and salaries, plus non-wage costs such as employer's social contributions. These do not include vocational training costs or other expenditures such as recruitment costs, and spending on working clothes.
 Research & development (R&D) expenditure ($) Money spent on creative work undertaken on a systematic basis to increase the stock of knowledge and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications in the sector
 Real minimum wage ($) Statutory minimum wages converted into a common hourly and annual pay period (in US$) for the OECD countries for which they are available.
 Tax revenue as percentage of GDP (%) Tax Revenue expressed as a percentage of GDP
 Ratio of education enrollment to total population (enrollment in 3 levels of primary, secondary, tertiary) Ratio of enrollment in primary, secondary, and tertiary education levels expressed with the total population
Innovation indicators Description
 PCT (Patent cooperation treaty) patent applications per 10,000 inhabitants Number of patent applications in PCT per 10,000 inhabitants (reference date is application date)
 Patents owned by foreign residents Patents owned by foreign countries (drill down to 8 countries including EU)
 Patent applications under PCT by technology sector Number of patent applications by technology for different sectors (sectors include chemistry/metallurgy; electricity; human necessities; fixed construction; mechanical engineering, lighting, heating; performing operations/transportation; physics; textiles/paper)