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Table 1 Summary of descriptive statistics results

From: Enterprise innovation in developing countries: an evidence from Ethiopia

Variable Variable description and measurement Obs Mean Std. dev. Min Max
h1 (new product innovation) Dummy variable that takes the value one (1) if the enterprise has introduced new product, 0 otherwise. 1487 0.40 0.49 0 1
h3 (new method of production innovation) Dummy variable that takes the value one (1) if the enterprise has introduced new method of production, 0 otherwise. 1488 0.34 0.47 0 1
h5 (new organizational structure innovation) Dummy variable that takes the value one (1) if the enterprise has introduced new organizational structure, 0 otherwise. 1485 0.30 0.46 0 1
h6 (new marketing methods innovation) Dummy variable that takes the value one (1) if the enterprise has introduced new marketing methods, 0 otherwise. 1488 0.34 0.47 0 1
a6b (size) It is a categorical variable that takes the values 0, 1, 2, and 3 if the enterprise is micro, small, medium, and large respectively. It measures the size of the enterprise. 1492 1.71 0.82 0 3
a3b (location of the enterprise) It is a dummy variable that takes the value one (1) if the enterprise is in the capital city, 0 otherwise. 1492 0.62 0.49 0 1
Fage (age) It is the age of the enterprise measured in years. 1476 13.67 12.02 0 89
Fagesqr (age square of the enterprise) It is the age square of the enterprise 1476 331.21 753.31 0 7921
b7 (experience of top manager) It is the years of experience of the top manager measured in years. 1466 14.02 9.95 0 60
b7a (gender of top manager) It is a dummy variable that takes the value one (1) if female, otherwise 0. 1491 0.10 0.30 0 1
c22b (website ownership) It a dummy variable that takes value one (1)1 if enterprise owns website, 0 otherwise. 1485 0.38 0.49 0 1
d3c (share of direct export) It is a continuous variable that measures enterprises’ share of export measured in percentage. 1484 4.95 19.10 0 100
l9b (education) It is a continuous variable that measures the percentage of full-time permanent workers who completed secondary school. 1457 68.03 29.73 0 100
l10 (formal training) It is a dummy variable that takes the value one (1) if there is availability of formal training programs for permanent full-time employees, otherwise 0. 1486 0.22 0.41 0 1
l1 (permanent workers) It is a continuous variable that measures the number of permanent full-time workers in the enterprise. 1467 96.31 361.73 1 7600
h7 (formal R & D) It is a dummy variable that takes the value one (1) if the enterprise has spent on formal R & D activities that last 3 years, otherwise 0. 1488 0.14 0.34 0 1
  1. Source: Own computation, 2017