Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Studies of the relationship between children in the household and self-employment

From: Entrepreneurship among parents

Authors Country Women sample size Men sample size Dependent variable Research design Findings
Arai (2000) Canada 11,828 13,766 Self-employment Cross-sectional population survey Women (but not men) with children are more likely to be self-employed
Carr (1996) USA 22,403 33,099 Self-employment Cross-sectional population survey Women and men with children are more likely to be self-employed
Connelly (1992) USA 8155 Self-employment Cross-sectional population survey Having children is positively associated with self-employment
Cowling and Taylor (2001) UK 2506 2842 Self-employment; job creators Multiple-year population surveys Having children is positively related to being self-employed and job creators
Edwards and Field-Hendrey (2002) USA 56,183 Home-based self-employment; on-site self-employment Cross-sectional population survey Home-based workers are more likely to be self-employed
Joona (2017) Sweden 2,924,790 Self-employment Panel data from register Women with young children are more likely to be self-employed
Kuhn and Schuetze (2001) Canada 1982–1989, 118000; 1990–1998, 188000 1982–1989, 104000; 1990–1998, 169000 Entry into and exit from self-employment Multiple-year population surveys Increase in female self-employment due to increase in retention rate
Lombard (2001) USA 220,091   Self-employment Multiple-year population surveys Women with small children are more likely to become self-employed
McManus (2001a, 2001b) USA, Germany USA, 21,563; Germany, 24,607 USA, 28,407; Germany, 22,131 Self-employment Multiple-year population surveys Women with children in both countries were more likely to become self-employed
Noseleit (2014) Europe 7688 Self-employment Cross-sectional and multiple-year population surveys Women with more than two children are more likely to become self-employed. Causality checked.
Rodriguez et al. (2009) USA Approx. 3000 Approx. 3000 Self-employment Cross-sectional population survey Household heads with children are more likely to be self-employed
Rønsen (2014) Norway 8616 Self-employment Cross-sectional population survey Women with children are more likely to be self-employed
Wellington (2006) USA 1977, 9246; 1988, 10,702; 1999, 7417 Self-employment Cross-sectional and multiple-year population surveys Women with small children in all years are more likely to be self-employed.