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Table 3 Conceptual model covering inhibitors of development and deployment of IoT applications

From: Empirical study on innovation motivators and inhibitors of Internet of Things applications for industrial manufacturing enterprises

Inhibitor ID Organisational inhibitor
 o1 Lack of clear digital operations vision/strategy
 o2 Unsuitable organisational structure or missing key functional areas
 o3 Lack of leadership from top management
 o4 Lack of digital culture and training
 o5 Lack of in-house expertise or skills
 o6 Lack of capabilities in data analytics
 o7 Lack of integration between physical product development and software development
 oNA Not applicable
Inhibitor ID Business inhibitor
 b1 Insufficient information to predict demand and revenues, resulting in high uncertainty
 b2 Weak value proposition of IoT applications and resulting low customer demand
 b3 Difficulty in identifying market opportunities
 b4 Insufficient information to predict costs or required investment
 b5 Issues related to monetisation under current business model
 b6 Issues related to collaboration with suppliers or partners on digital solutions
 b7 Issues related to choosing level of vertical integration for IoT applications
 bNA Not applicable
Inhibitor ID Technological inhibitor
 t1 Availability of basic infrastructure technologies
 t2 Difficulties related to selecting enabling technologies to realise IoT applications
 t3 Difficulties related to interoperability with internal or external systems
 t4 Need for standardised identification and addressing protocols
 t5 Internet scalability to handle increase in traffic and requests
 t6 Issues related to physical product design measures to prevent unauthorised data access
 t7 Issues related to software measures to prevent unauthorised data access
 t8 Insufficient tools to manage user authentication process
 t9 Difficulties related to integration of digital components into physical product
 t10 Access to tools and database to handle big data
 tNA Not applicable
Inhibitor ID Industrial inhibitor
 i1 Undefined regulations and laws around customer privacy and data collection
 i2 Undefined regulations and laws around the use and sharing of data
 i3 Lack of comprehensive and widely accepted service intermediaries
 i4 Lack of certification to improve trust among customers and industry participants
 i5 Potential loss of intellectual property
 iNA Not applicable