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Table 2 Unit root test results

From: Agricultural sector foreign direct investment and economic growth in Ghana

Variablesa ADF PPP
Level First difference Level First difference
Gross domestic product (GDP) 4.129 − 3.616** 3.523 − 3.658**
Foreign direct investment-Agric (FDIA) 4.059 − 4.553*** 5.980 − 4.899***
Foreign direct investment-gross (FDIG) 2.556 − 3.454** 2.220 − 3.352**
Government expenditure − 0.841 − 4.281*** − 1.120 − 4.154***
Capital stock − 1.096 − 6.580*** − 1.059 − 6.638***
Trade openness − 0.850 − 4.101*** − 1.075 − 3.937***
  1. Critical values were − 3.662, − 2.964 and − 2.616 for 1, 5, and 10% level of significance. Symbols *** and ** denotes 1% and 5% levels of significance respectively
  2. a All values are in natural log