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Table 1 Institutional orders in the Triple Helix model

From: Changing economic systems and institutional dimensions of the Triple Helix model

Stages of development Major Triple Helix activities Favorable institutional logics (market, industry, firms, professions)
Stage 1 Realizing the importance of entering a reciprocal relationship between university, industry, and government Shared beliefs on knowledge as a key to economic growth (logics of economic growth in the field of government and industry)
Realization of the needs
Stage 2 Taking the role of the other Market-oriented organizational cultures (logics of market at the state level)
Intra-organizational transformation
Process-oriented management culture in technology innovation (logics of knowledge management in the fields of industry and academia)
Stage 3 Growing and innovating through cooperation with others Effective protection for intellectual property rights and market participants (logics of intellectual property at the field of industry)
Interactions between organizations in the three sectors Generating hybrid organization
Civil society (logics of civil society at the state level)
Stage 4 Feedback loops between policy-makers and participants Competitive market environment (logics of competition in the field of university)
Institutionalization of the Triple Helix model Institutionalized norms of “entrepreneurial university,” “knowledge-based formation and growth,” and “innovation state” (Etzkowitz 2008) Democratic policymaking process (logics of democracy in the field of government)
  1. Source: Cai (2013)