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Table 10 Sales growth and innovation

From: Innovation and employment growth: evidence from manufacturing firms in Africa

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Sales growth Sales growth Sales growth Sales growth Sales growth Sales growth
Innov (0 = no innovation)
 1 (= Process/Product) 0.06*    0.07*   
(0.0274)    (0.0289)   
 2 (= Process × Product) 0.05*    0.04   
(0.0266)    (0.0271)   
Productivity 0.1*** 0.1*** 0.1*** 0.1*** 0.1*** 0.1***
(0.00897) (0.00886) (0.00893) (0.00917) (0.00904) (0.00916)
Process (1 = yes)   0.07**    0.05*  
  (0.0234)    (0.0241)  
Product (1 = yes)    0.02    0.01
   (0.0229)    (0.0236)
Retained − 0.1** − 0.08* − 0.1** − 0.10** − 0.08* − 0.1**
(0.0371) (0.0364) (0.0373) (0.0376) (0.0369) (0.0379)
Size (small)
 Medium − 0.03 − 0.04+ − 0.03 − 0.02 − 0.03 − 0.02
(0.0240) (0.0237) (0.0240) (0.0251) (0.0249) (0.0251)
 Large − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.02
(0.0371) (0.0371) (0.0369) (0.0389) (0.0390) (0.0389)
lnAge − 0.03** − 0.03** − 0.03* − 0.03* − 0.03* − 0.03*
(0.0134) (0.0134) (0.0135) (0.0132) (0.0133) (0.0133)
lnMexperience − 0.01 − 0.009 − 0.01 − 0.007 − 0.004 − 0.007
(0.0162) (0.0163) (0.0162) (0.0168) (0.0170) (0.0169)
Foreign (1 = yes) − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.03 − 0.02 − 0.03
(0.0278) (0.0278) (0.0280) (0.0285) (0.0285) (0.0287)
Government (1 = yes) 0.2* 0.2* 0.2* 0.2+ 0.2+ 0.2*
(0.0822) (0.0829) (0.0819) (0.0855) (0.0868) (0.0857)
Millioncity (1 = yes) − 0.02 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.02 − 0.03 − 0.02
(0.0254) (0.0250) (0.0254) (0.0259) (0.0257) (0.0260)
Exporting (1 = yes) − 0.006 − 0.006 − 0.0007 0.004 0.003 0.006
(0.0286) (0.0286) (0.0285) (0.0296) (0.0297) (0.0298)
Electricity (1 = yes)     − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.02
    (0.0266) (0.0264) (0.0267)
Bureaucracy     − 0.0009* − 0.0008* − 0.0008*
    (0.000406) (0.000406) (0.000408)
Bribe     0.003+ 0.003+ 0.003+
    (0.00192) (0.00195) (0.00193)
Competition     − 0.01 − 0.005 − 0.008
    (0.0223) (0.0223) (0.0224)
Country fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
ISIC fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Constant − 0.8*** − 0.8*** − 0.8*** − 0.9*** − 0.9*** − 0.9***
(0.0964) (0.0970) (0.0964) (0.102) (0.102) (0.102)
N 5822 5762 5798 5389 5337 5370
R 2 0.118 0.116 0.117 0.121 0.119 0.120
Adj. R2 0.109 0.108 0.109 0.111 0.110 0.110
  1. Note: (1) All models are pooled OLS with standard errors adjusted for clusters using unique firm identifiers. (2) Standard errors in parentheses. (3) Significance levels: +p < 0.10, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. Source: Authors’ own computation based on WBES, 2018