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Table 3 Descriptive summary statistics

From: Innovation and employment growth: evidence from manufacturing firms in Africa

Variable No. of observations Mean Std. Dev. Min Max
Employment growth 6400 0.11 0.45 − 2 2
Innov (0 = no innovation)
 1 (= Process/Product) 6400 0.21 0.41 0 1
 2 (=Process × Product) 6400 0.35 0.48 0 1
Product (1 = yes) 6351 0.43 0.49 0 1
Process (1 = yes) 6303 0.50 0.50 0 1
SalesG 6262 0.10 0.79 − 4.37 7
Productivity 6336 207,645.40 7,786,660.00 1.10265 6.06E + 08
R&D (1 = yes) 6326 0.21 0.41 0 1
Retained (1 = yes) 6393 0.73 0.33 0 1
Small (1 = yes) 6400 0.47 0.50 0 1
Medium (1 = yes) 6400 0.32 0.47 0 1
Large (1 = yes) 6400 0.21 0.41 0 1
Age 6164 19.96 15.58 0 212
Young (1 = yes) 6208 0.07 0.26 0 1
Older (1 = yes) 6162 0.55 0.50 0 1
Mature (1 = yes) 6400 0.37 0.48 0 1
Mexperience 6202 17.90 11.12 1 72
Domestic 6372 0.88 0.32 0 1
Foreign (1 = yes) 6355 0.17 0.38 0 1
Government (1 = yes) 6360 0.05 0.23 0 1
Millioncity (1 = yes) 6400 0.36 0.48 0 1
Exporting (1 = yes) 6400 0.28 0.45 0 1
Electricity (1 = yes) 6350 0.70 0.46 0 1
Bureaucracy 6359 10.26 21.34 0 100
Bribe 6298 1.46 6.73 0 100
Competition (1 = yes) 5995 0.57 0.50 0 1
  1. Source: Authors’ own computation based on WBES, 2018