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Table 4 Baseline model, employment growth and innovation

From: Innovation and employment growth: evidence from manufacturing firms in Africa

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
  Employment growth Employment growth Employment growth Employment growth Employment growth Employment growth
Innov (0 = no innovation)
 (= Process/Product) − 0.006    0.0001   
(0.0160)    (0.0168)   
 2 (= Process × Product) 0.04*    0.06***   
(0.0156)    (0.0166)   
Process (1 = yes)   0.01    0.03*  
  (0.0140)    (0.0148)  
Product (1 = yes)    0.04***    0.05***
   (0.0125)    (0.0132)
SalesG 0.04*** 0.04*** 0.04*** 0.04*** 0.04*** 0.04***
(0.0106) (0.0108) (0.0107) (0.0114) (0.0115) (0.0114)
Productivity − 0.03*** − 0.03*** − 0.03*** − 0.03*** − 0.03*** − 0.03***
(0.00439) (0.00440) (0.00438) (0.00455) (0.00456) (0.00453)
Retained 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.004 0.006 0.003
(0.0192) (0.0194) (0.0192) (0.0200) (0.0202) (0.0200)
Size
 Medium 0.09*** 0.09*** 0.09*** 0.08*** 0.09*** 0.08***
(0.0145) (0.0147) (0.0145) (0.0151) (0.0152) (0.0151)
 Large 0.1*** 0.1*** 0.1*** 0.1*** 0.1*** 0.1***
(0.0194) (0.0195) (0.0195) (0.0202) (0.0202) (0.0202)
lnAge − 0.04*** − 0.04*** − 0.04*** − 0.04*** − 0.05*** − 0.05***
(0.00881) (0.00882) (0.00877) (0.00910) (0.00910) (0.00905)
lnMexperience 0.009 0.007 0.009 0.009 0.007 0.009
(0.00935) (0.00922) (0.00913) (0.00980) (0.00965) (0.00955)
Foreign (1 = yes) 0.002 − 0.0004 0.001 − 0.005 − 0.009 − 0.005
(0.0162) (0.0163) (0.0161) (0.0170) (0.0170) (0.0169)
Government (1 = yes) 0.06 0.06 0.07+ 0.07+ 0.07+ 0.08*
(0.0386) (0.0393) (0.0380) (0.0403) (0.0408) (0.0395)
Millioncity (1 = yes) − 0.005 − 0.005 − 0.006 − 0.01 − 0.01 − 0.01
(0.0133) (0.0134) (0.0133) (0.0137) (0.0137) (0.0136)
Exporting (1 = yes) − 0.008 − 0.005 − 0.009 − 0.02 − 0.01 − 0.02
(0.0150) (0.0151) (0.0150) (0.0156) (0.0157) (0.0156)
Electricity (1 = yes)     − 0.03+ − 0.02 − 0.03+
    (0.0155) (0.0154) (0.0154)
Bureaucracy     − 0.0006* − 0.0006* − 0.0006*
    (0.000277) (0.000278) (0.000276)
Bribe     0.0008 0.0007 0.0007
    (0.000974) (0.000972) (0.000963)
Competition (1 = yes)     − 0.01 − 0.01 − 0.01
Country fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
ISIC fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
    (0.0129) (0.0129) (0.0128)
Constant 0.4*** 0.4*** 0.4*** 0.4*** 0.4*** 0.4***
(0.0511) (0.0512) (0.0507) (0.0549) (0.0551) (0.0547)
N 5822 5762 5798 5389 5337 5370
R 2 0.062 0.060 0.062 0.066 0.063 0.067
Adj. R2 0.053 0.051 0.053 0.055 0.053 0.056
  1. Note: (1) All models are pooled OLS with standard errors adjusted for clusters using unique firm identifiers. (2) Standard errors in parentheses. (3) Significance levels: +p < 0.10, *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001
  2. Source: Authors’ own computation based on WBES, 2018