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Table 5 Interaction between innovation and firm age

From: Innovation and employment growth: evidence from manufacturing firms in Africa

  (1) (2) (3)
Employment growth Employment growth Employment growth
Innov (0 = no innovation)
 1 (= Process/Product) − 0.03   
(0.0267)   
 2 (= Process × Product) 0.001   
(0.0247)   
Process (1 = yes)   − 0.02  
  (0.0218)  
Product (1 = yes)    0.02
   (0.0209)
Young (1 = yes) − 0.02 − 0.01 0.002
(0.0412) (0.0386) (0.0351)
Older (1 = yes) − 0.10*** − 0.09*** − 0.08***
(0.0202) (0.0189) (0.0176)
Innovation × Young
 1 0.03   
(0.0647)   
 2 0.1+   
(0.0593)   
Innovation × Older
 1 0.05   
(0.0330)   
 2 0.07*   
(0.0296)   
Process × Young   0.08  
  (0.0519)  
Process × Older   0.07**  
  (0.0259)  
Product × Young    0.07
   (0.0521)
Product × Older    0.05+
   (0.0259)
Country fixed effects Yes Yes Yes
ISIC fixed effects Yes Yes Yes
Constant 0.5*** 0.5*** 0.5***
(0.0587) (0.0589) (0.0585)
N 5168 5117 5146
R 2 0.072 0.069 0.071
Adj. R2 0.060 0.057 0.060
  1. Note: (1) All models are pooled OLS with standard errors adjusted for clusters using unique firm identifiers. (2) Standard errors in parentheses. (3) Significance levels: +p < 0.10, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. (3) All models control for firm-specific and business environment characteristics
  2. Source: Authors’ own computation based on WBES, 2018