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Table 1 Measurement of model variables

From: Entrepreneurial orientation, competitive advantage, and SMEs’ performance: application of firm growth and personal wealth measures

Construct Dimension Number of items Source
Entrepreneurial orientation Pro-activeness Three Campos et al. (2012)
Risk taking Three
Competitive aggressiveness Two
Autonomy Three
Innovativeness Three
Competitive advantage Differentiated products Three Ramaswami et al. (2006)
Market sensing Four
Market responsiveness Five
SMEs’ performance
(growth measures)
Growth in assets One Shepherd and Wiklund (2009)
Growth in sales One
Growth in number of employees One
SMEs’ performance
(personal wealth measures)
Food purchasing capability One Eijdenberg (2016)
Health care paying capability One
Shelter acquisition capability One