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Table 1 Descriptive statistics on R&D share, number of patents and PCGDP growth rate

From: Interplays among R&D spending, patent and income growth: new empirical evidence from the panel of countries and groups

  R&D % No. patents PC growth rate R&D % No. patents PC growth rate R&D % No. patents PC growth rate R&D % No. patents PC growth rate
  Mean Mean Mean SD SD SD Min Min Min Max Max Max
OECD 2.33 1,189,974 1.37 0.17 149,756.8 1.53 2.12 887,936 − 4.22 2.81 1,377,360 3.21
High income 2.34 1,201,217 1.45 0.15 149,948 1.51 2.13 902,092 − 4.08 2.71 1,387,072 3.31
Upper middle income 1.06 520,146.5 4.04 0.39 457,821 2.23 0.6 93,349 0.52 1.91 1,519,670 8.25
Low & middle income 0.98 573,001.8 3.58 0.35 474,962.3 1.93 0.5 120,487 0.28 1.67 1,595,941 6.67
USA 2.63 421,165.1 1.53 0.12 130,916.5 1.62 2.44 211,946 − 3.62 2.82 606,956 3.48
China 1.39 407,059.8 8.39 0.52 438,195.7 1.98 0.56 22,742 5.55 2.15 1,381,594 13.6
Japan 3.11 377,921.1 0.6 0.19 41,816.74 2.02 2.69 376,674 − 5.51 3.39 318,479 4.69
Germany 2.56 60,838.27 1.63 0.26 3,858.784 2.31 2.13 51,833 − 5.37 2.89 67,712 5.2
S. Korea 3.08 151,102.9 3.56 0.83 46,787.61 3.18 2.06 90,326 − 6.39 4.29 204,775 9.94
India 0.77 27,363.09 5.43 0.07 15,530.39 2.02 0.62 8562 2.01 0.91 46,582 7.59
France 2.15 16,743.55 0.95 0.07 419.8112 1.45 2.01 16,400 − 3.43 2.27 16,247 3.17
UK 1.63 26,377.5 1.56 0.04 3985.261 1.76 0.95 28,005 − 4.91 1.72 22,072 3.42
Russia 1.1 36,079.32 2.3 0.09 6706.499 5.86 0.95 25,994 − 8.81 1.28 36,883 8.5
Brazil 1.05 21,707 1.12 0.09 6236.94 2.61 0.91 8057 − 4.6 1.19 25,658 6.49
  1. Source: Computed by the author