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Table 2 Inspirations and areas of application in chronological order

From: From innovation-as-usual towards unusual innovation: using nature as an inspiration

Application Author(s) Biological inspiration Disciplinary origin
Artificial surfaces Barthlott and Neinhuis (1997) Natural system for delivering a periodic pulsed spray Engineering sciences
Anti-viral software Rice and Martin (2007) Biological models Information systems
Gas turbine igniters (aerospace) Beheshti and Mcintosch (2007) Natural system to deliver a periodic pulsed spray Engineering sciences
Artificial molecules (biomedical applications) Jang, Selim, Lee, and Kang (2008) Biological agents Chemistry
A problem-solving methodology for interior architecture El-Zeiny (2012) Biomimicry Architecture
Optimization of fluid transportation Kim and Busch (2012) Natural drinking strategies Mathematics and mechanics
Scaleable multiscale patterning technology Bae et al. (2014) Multiscale, hierarchical patterned surfaces (butterfly wings, gecko lizards) Advanced materials
Lessons for human organizations Fewell (2015) Social behaviour of insects Social dynamics and complexity
Optimization of technical pumping systems Bach, Schmich, Masselter, and Speck (2015) Natural pumping techniques Materials and biomechanics
A model of bio-inspiration for creative design Salgueiredo and Hatchuel (2016) Bioinspired design Concept-knowledge design
A new way of thinking and acting ecologically Blok and Gremmen (2016) Biomimicry Social sciences
Actuators for robotics Hu et al. (2017) Human’s flick finger behaviour Nanosciences
Anti-corrosion/erosion surfaces Zhang et al. (2017) Desert scorpion (its micro-structure) Surfaces in motion