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Table 10 Items of the questionnaire along with their sources and their theoretically designated factors

From: Attitude toward entrepreneurship, perceived behavioral control, and entrepreneurial intention: dimensionality, structural relationships, and gender differences

Items Sources
 Instrumental attitude
  1. Being an entrepreneur implies more advantages than disadvantages to me. Liñán and Chen (2009)
  2. Entrepreneurship would present more up than downsides. Maes et al. (2014)
 Affective attitude
  3. A career as entrepreneur is (totally) attractive for me. Liñán and Chen (2009)
  4. If I had the opportunity and resources, I would love to start a firm (business).
  5. Being an entrepreneur would entail great satisfactions for me.
Perceived behavioral control
 Perceived difficulty
  1. Starting a firm and keeping it viable would be easy for me. Guerrero et al. (2009)
  2. If I wanted to, I could easily pursue a career as entrepreneur. Kolvereid (1996b)
 Perceived confidence
  3. If I tried to start a business, I would have a high chance of being successful. Guerrero et al. (2009)
  4. I have skills and capabilities to succeed as an entrepreneur. Grundstén (2004); Autio et al. (2001)
  5. I am confident that I would succeed if I started my own firm.
  6. I am certain that I can start a firm and keeping it viable. Self-constructed
 Perceived controllability
  7. I can control the creation process of a new firm. Liñán and Chen (2009)
  8. The number of events outside my control which could prevent me from being an entrepreneur are very few. Kolvereid (1996b)
  9. As entrepreneur, I would have complete control over the situation.
 Choice intention
  1. I would rather own my own business than earn a higher salary employed by someone else. Kolvereid and Isaksen (2006)
  2. I would rather own my own business than pursue another promising career.
  3. I am willing to make significant personal sacrifices in order to stay in business.
  4. I would work somewhere else only long enough to make another attempt to establish my business.
 Commitment to an entrepreneurial career
  5. My professional goal is to become an entrepreneur. Liñán and Chen (2009)
  6. I will make every effort to start and run my own firm (business).
  7. I am determined to create a firm (business venture) in the future.
  8. I have very seriously thought of starting a firm.
  9. I consider it to be very likely that in the future I will be running my own firm. van Gelderen et al. (2008)
  10. I plan to launch my own business someday. Thompson (2009)
 Nascent entrepreneurship
  11. I read books on how to set up a firm. Thompson (2009)
  12. I spend time learning about starting a firm.
  13. I attend seminars and conferences that focus on a “start your own business planning.” McGee et al. (2009)
  14. I participate in seminars that focus on writing a business plan.