Skip to main content

Table 11 The effect of culture on gross domestic spending on R&D

From: Culture, innovation, and economic development

Dependent variable Gross domestic spending on R&D
Independent variables (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)
  2.23*** (3.35) 1.94** (2.78) 1.77** (2.19) 1.24* (2.01) 1.84** (2.34) 1.59***(2.96)
Hierarchy vs egalitarianism–PC1 − 0.24** (− 2.55)      
Hierarchy vs egalitarianism–PC2   − 0.33* (− 1.97)    
Conservatism/embeddedness vs autonomy–PC1    − 0.02 (− 0.23)   
Conservatism/embeddedness vs autonomy–PC2     − 0.37*** (− 3.13)  
Mastery vs harmony–PC1      − 0.01 (− 0.12)
Mastery vs harmony–PC2       − 0.49*** (− 3.98)
N 107 107 105 105 107 107
R2 32.09% 22.22% 15.89% 41.17% 18.92% 53.33%
F-stat 3.31** 2.01 0.03 4.9** 0.04 8.00***
  1. The t statistics values are displayed in parentheses. *, **, and *** represent statistical significance at 10%, 5%, and 1% significance level, respectively. Each column represents a separate regression