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Table 2 Kazakhstan’s GDP values and Global Innovation Index ranks for 2012–2020.

From: Innovation processes in Kazakhstan: development factors

Year 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
GDP, billion dollars 208 236.64 221.42 184.39 137.29 166.81 179.34 181.67 165.73
Rank 104 84 79 78 82 83 81 79 77