Skip to main content

A Systems View Across Time and Space

Table 1 Definition of variables

From: Modelling the significance of strategic orientation for competitive advantage and economic sustainability: the use of hybrid SEM–neural network analysis



Customer orientation focuses on how a company should understand customers’ needs through the collection, dissemination of customer-focused strategies, and responsiveness to the potential market

Jeong et al. (2006)

Competitor orientation is a set of beliefs that puts the interest of customers first, without excluding those of all other stakeholders, such as owners, managers, and employees, in order to develop a long-term profitable enterprise

Deshpandé and Webster (1993)

Technology orientation is defined as an organisation’s openness to new ideas and inclination to adopt new technology during the development of products

Tsou et al. (2014)

Network orientation is a set of actors (persons, teams, organisations, and concepts) connected by a set of value, friendship, capability with directed (potentially one-directional, as in giving advice to someone) or undirected (as in being physically proximate)

Borgatti and Foster (2003)

Innovation orientation is stated as the transfer and the upstream and downstream use of information, shaping, and refining innovation, the willingness to move beyond old habits, the openness to new ideas at different organisational levels, and the inclination to generate novel ideas on processes and products

Bouncken and Koch (2007)

Competitive advantage is defined as the implementation of a strategy that is not currently implemented by other firms that facilitates the reduction of costs, the exploitation of market opportunities, and/or the neutralisation of competitive threats; the performance is generally conceptualised as the rents a firm accrues as a result of the implementation of the strategy

Newbert (2008)

Economic sustainability is a company’s obligation to open up opportunities for growth and profits and consider the influence of their business activities on the financial perspective, such as profitability, cost reduction, and management needed to focus on sustainability

Ferro et al. (2019)