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Table 10 Independent-samples test

From: Examining the differences between the motivations of traditional and entrepreneurial scientists

  Levene’s test for equality of variances t test for equality of means
F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean difference Std. error difference 95 % confidence interval of the difference
Lower Upper
M1—to collect industrial feedback on the applicability of my invention Equal variances assumed 1.340 .248 −1.405 273 .161 −.26667 .18973 −.64019 .10686
Equal variances not assumed    −1.801 43.778 .079 −.26667 .14803 −.56504 .03171
M8—to ensure direct control over the commercialization of my invention Equal variances assumed 1.889 .170 −2.196 273 .029 −.41562 .18927 −.78823 −.04300
Equal variances not assumed    −3.109 46.191 .003 −.41562 .13367 −.68464 −.14659
M2—to ensure an ecosystem that is more flexible than the university for the further development of my invention Equal variances assumed .011 .918 −1.236 265 .218 −.22996 .18603 −.59625 .13633
Equal variances not assumed    −1.221 36.478 .230 −.22996 .18837 −.61182 .15190
M7—to demonstrate the practical relevance of my research to family/friends Equal variances assumed 2.946 .087 −2.782 289 .006 −.66667 .23967 −1.13838 −.19495
Equal variances not assumed    −2.392 33.712 .022 −.66667 .27873 −1.23329 −.10004
M5—to increase my scientific reputation through entrepreneurship Equal variances assumed .004 .952 −1.272 289 .204 −.30268 .23799 −.77109 .16572
Equal variances not assumed    −1.319 36.705 .195 −.30268 .22942 −.76766 .16230
M6—to increase my social reputation through entrepreneurship Equal variances assumed 1.009 .316 −.792 290 .429 −.18651 .23557 −.65015 .27713
Equal variances not assumed    −.882 38.258 .384 −.18651 .21158 −.61474 .24172
M9—to benefit society with my invention Equal variances assumed .391 .532 −.747 293 .456 −.14528 .19458 −.52823 .23767
Equal variances not assumed    −.845 38.538 .404 −.14528 .17201 −.49334 .20277
M11—to secure a job if my university position is terminated Equal variances assumed 6.632 .011 −1.112 280 .267 −.27668 .24871 −.76626 .21290
Equal variances not assumed    −1.258 37.321 .216 −.27668 .22002 −.72234 .16898
M10—to secure jobs for young researchers at my spin-off company Equal variances assumed .181 .671 −2.217 288 .027 −.42179 .19024 −.79622 −.04737
Equal variances not assumed    −2.730 41.279 .009 −.42179 .15449 −.73373 −.10986
M3—to increase my personal income from my entrepreneurial activities Equal variances assumed .544 .461 −1.202 295 .230 −.20150 .16767 −.53149 .12849
Equal variances not assumed    −1.496 41.264 .142 −.20150 .13467 −.47342 .07042
M4—to obtain financial resources for further research Equal variances assumed .986 .322 −1.663 293 .097 −.27987 .16827 −.61104 .05129
Equal variances not assumed    −2.065 41.278 .045 −.27987 .13553 −.55353 −.00622
  1. Source: authors’ compilation