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Table 2 Trend of Innovation (per thousand population) in European countries

From: Does innovation promote economic growth? Evidence from European countries

Countries PAR PAN RDE
P1 P2 P3 P4 P1 P2 P3 P4 P1 P2 P3 P4
Austria 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.26 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.05 1.77 2.29 2.76 2.28
Belgium 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.03 1.87 1.90 2.12 1.95
Czech Republic 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.33 0.19 0.01 0.19 1.07 1.23 1.51 1.26
Denmark 0.25 0.32 0.27 0.28 0.14 0.03 0.03 0.08 1.99 2.49 2.99 2.53
Finland 0.44 0.38 0.32 0.39 0.38 0.04 0.02 0.20 2.93 3.43 3.77 3.38
France 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.05 2.18 2.15 2.23 2.18
Germany 0.48 0.59 0.58 0.54 0.11 0.14 0.16 0.13 2.32 2.51 2.83 2.55
Greece 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.53 0.58 0.68 0.59
Hungary 0.13 0.08 0.07 0.10 0.18 0.23 0.01 0.15 0.70 0.95 1.17 0.94
Ireland 0.23 0.21 0.14 0.20 0.35 0.02 0.01 0.18 1.22 1.19 1.64 1.33
Italy 0.13 0.16 0.14 0.15 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.15 1.02 1.11 1.25 1.13
Netherlands 0.14 0.13 0.15 0.14 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.03 1.96 1.89 1.92 1.91
Norway 0.26 0.25 0.23 0.25 1.04 1.08 0.32 0.88 1.63 1.59 1.67 1.62
Poland 0.08 0.06 0.09 0.08 0.06 0.09 0.01 0.05 0.66 0.57 0.74 0.64
Portugal 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.02 0.10 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.63 0.84 1.55 0.99
Romania 0.09 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.51 0.42 0.50 0.47
Spain 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.85 1.09 1.36 1.09
Sweden 0.43 0.33 0.24 0.35 0.10 0.06 0.03 0.07 3.52 3.70 3.50 3.59
United Kingdom 0.33 0.32 0.25 0.31 0.16 0.17 0.19 0.15 1.77 1.73 1.77 1.75
European panel# 3.68 3.59 3.35 3.59 3.22 2.23 0.93 2.47 1.49 1.66 1.93 1.80
  1. PAR is number of patents by residents, PAN is number of patents by non-residents, and RDE is research and development expenditure. P1 is 1989–2000, P2 is 2001–2007, P3 is 2008–2014, and P4 is 1989–2014
  2. #The figures are average of all 19 European countries