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Table 1 The participant and nonparticipant group’s innovation understanding, before and after the formal innovation training

From: Can formal innovation training improve group- and organizational-level innovativeness in a healthcare setting?

Innovation phase Code The focus of each question Part. (before) Part. (after) t test Statistical significance Nonpart. (before) Nonpart. (after) t test Statistical significance
Innovation strategy
(S1–S3)
SI Understanding of current organization strategy 2.20 3.78 0.0001 *** 2.10 2.91 0.0194 *
S2 Long-term strategy 2.60 3.11 0.0414 * 2.52 3.33 0.0230 *
S3 Time allocated towards thinking differently 2.47 3.33 0.0045 ** 2.45 3.25 0.0165 *
Idea generation
(IG1-eIG2)
IG1 Internally, the openness of the working environment 2.93 3.S9 0.0099 ** 3.50 3.92 0.0574  
IG2 Internally, the extent of the organization to think differently 2.93 3.89 0.0201 * 3.24 3.67 0.0370  
IG3 Internally, the quality of the organizations’ ideas 2.40 3.44 0.0001 *** 2.73 3.00 0.1846  
IG4 Internally, the extent to which we partner with other departments 2.73 3.22 0.1078   2.81 3.18 0.0535  
IG5 Other firms on normal and innovative projects 3.29 4.11 0.0062 ** 2.95 3.33 0.0904  
eIG1 Importance of external ideas 3.00 2.44 0.0592   3.05 3.33 0.0903  
eIG2 Value given to ideas that come from outside the firm 2.64 2.67 0.4169   2.S6 2.50 0.0581  
Conversion
(Sell-D3)
Sell How easy it is to bring an idea forward to the org 2.53 3.44 0.0020 ** 2.57 2.75 0.3079  
Sel2 The importance of each individual’s opinion in selection 3.40 4.11 0.0715   3.18 3.50 0.1113  
Sel3 The importance of the group’s opinion in selection 3.50 4.00 0.1708   3.45 3.75 0.0723  
Sel4 The org understands why a particular idea is chosen 3.21 3.78 0.1290   3.41 3.75 0.1045  
Sel5 Is the more conservative or risky idea more often chosen 2.13 2.00 0.2760   2.48 2.33 0.2643  
D1 Using formal innovation processes to measure progress 3.00 3.00 0.4032   3.05 3.18 0.2328  
D2 Ideas are generally developed on time, without delays 3.07 3.00 0.3638   2.81 3.00 0.2292  
D3 Management generally has strong support in developing 3.21 3.78 0.1063   3.10 3.33 0.1368  
Diffusion
(Diff1–Diff5)
Diff1 How fast the org is at bringing idea to the market 3.20 3.22 0.5000   2.95 3.33 0.0740  
Diff2 How quickly our ideas are copied (e.g., by competitors) 2.92 2.89 0.3417   2.73 2.33 0.3291  
Diff3 Extent maximizing value (e.g., markets, customers) 2.67 2.67 0.2873   2.70 2,91 0.2232  
Diff4 Extent org discusses lessons learned with developing team 2.57 3.11 0.2292   2.57 2.92 0.1103  
Diff5 Extent org discusses lessons learned with entire org 3.20 3.33 0.3802   3.19 3.42 0.2220  
Innovation attitude
(A1–A2)
Al Personal enthusiasm towards innovation 4.07 4.33 0.4696   3.45 3.17 0.1404  
A2 Optimistic attitude towards innovation education course 3.75 4.44 0.1087   2.75 2.33 0.3939  
Control question C Experim. group has spoken to control group about 2.S3 4.33 0.0025 ** 2.47 2.00 0.0702  
  1. *p < 0.05, **p<0.01, ***p < 0.001