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Table 3 Change in innovative efforts between 2012 and 2015 (n = 46)

From: Response to the global financial crisis: a follow-up study

  Mean SD Mean diff. Std. error diff. Sig.
Developing new foreign markets, 2012 3.33 0.81 0.30 1.25 0.12
Developing new foreign markets, 2015 3.02 0.91
Developing new domestic markets, 2012 4.22 0.90 0.00 1.04 1.00
Developing new domestic markets, 2015 4.22 0.80
Investing in promotion/advertising, 2012 3.16 0.85 − 0.27 1.10 0.11
Investing in promotion/advertising, 2015 3.42 0.84
Investing in sales, 2012 3.43 0.73 − 0.18 1.08 0.27
Investing in sales, 2015 3.61 0.81
Developing new products, 2012 3.91 0.85 0.09 0.97 0.54
Developing new products, 2015 3.82 0.86
Being more flexible with production, 2012 4.31 0.67 0.31 0.93 0.03
Being more flexible with production, 2015 4.00 0.60
Aggressiveness of business tactics/practices, 2012 4.11 0.71 0.38 0.89 0.01
Aggressiveness of business tactics/practices, 2015 3.73 0.75
Acquisition of competing companies, 2012 2.97 0.74 − 0.05 1.03 0.76
Acquisition of competing companies, 2015 3.03 0.81
Investing in customer relationships, 2012 4.16 0.71 0.06 0.90 0.25
Investing in customer relationships, 2015 4.00 0.71
  1. Paired samples t test, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01