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Table 2 Variables in the research

From: Exploring science-and-technology-led innovation: a cross-country study

Category Variable Description
Research and development
 R&D expenditure BERD (%) Business enterprise expenditure on R&D (BERD) as a % of GDP
BERD by industry (current PPP dollars $) Business enterprise expenditure on R&D (BERD) performed in the industries of service, aerospace, computer, electronic and optical, pharmaceutical,
GERD (%) Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a % of GDP
GERD by sector of performance GERD in the sectors of: business enterprise (GERD_BUS_PERFORM), government (GERD_GOV_PERFORM), higher education (GERD_HIGH_PERFORM), and private sector (GERD_PRIVATE_PERFORM)
GERD by source of funds GERD financed by other national sources, government (GERD_GOV_FINANCE), industry (GERD_IND_FINANCE), and abroad (GERD_ABROAD_FINANCE)
GOVERD Government intramural expenditure on R&D (GOVERD) as a % of GDP
HERD Higher education expenditure on R&D as a % of GDP
 R&D personnel GOVER_RESEARCHER Government researchers as a % of national total
BUS_RESEARCHER Business enterprise researchers as a % of national total
HIGH_RESEARCHER Higher education researchers as a % of national total
Patents
 Patent filing PATENT_TRIADIC Number of “triadic” patent families (priority year), based on inventor(s)'s countries of residence
PATENT_PCT Number of patent applications filed under the PCT(priority year), based on inventor(s)’s countries of residence
PATENT_EPO Number of patent applications filed under the European Patent Office (priority year), based on inventor(s)'s countries of residence
 International cooperation in patents COOP_COINVENTOR% The total percentage of patents invented with foreign co-inventors under EPO where reference date is prior date.
COOP_OWN% The total percentage of patents owned by foreign residents in EPO where reference date is prior date.
COOP_ABROAD% The total percentage of patents invented abroad in EPO where reference date is Prior Date.
 Patents by technology PATENT_BIO Number of patents in the biotechnology sector - applications filed under the PCT (priority year), based on inventor(s)’s countries of residence
PATENT_ICT Number of patents in the ICT sector—applications filed under the PCT, based on inventor(s)’s countries of residence (priority year)
PATENT_ ENV Number of patents in the ENV_TECH sector—applications filed under the PCT, based on inventor(s)’s countries of residence (priority year)
PATENT_PHARMA Number of patents in the PHARMA sector—applications filed under the PCT, based on inventor(s)’s countries of residence (priority year)
Exports
 Export of particular industries EXPORT_AERO Total exports: aerospace industry (current prices)
EXPORT_IT Total exports: computer, electronic, and optical industry (current prices)
EXPORT_PHAR Total exports: pharmaceutical industry (current prices)