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Table 5 ADF test results

From: Exploring science-and-technology-led innovation: a cross-country study

IT Aero Pharmacy
Variables t value p value Variables t value p value Variables t value p value
EXPORT_IT − 10.53 0.01 EXPORT_AERO − 11.47 0.01 EXPORT_PHAR − 14.85 0.01
BERD% − 9.85 0.01 BERD% − 9.85 0.01 BERG% − 9.85 0.01
GERD% − 8.70 0.01 GERD% − 8.70 0.01 GERD% − 8.70 0.01
GOVERD% − 8.24 0.01 GOVERD% − 8.24 0.01 GOVERD% − 8.24 0.01
GOVER_RESEACHER% − 9.84 0.01 GOVER_RESEACHER% − 9.84 0.01 GOVER_RESEACHER% − 9.84 0.01
BUS_RESEARCHER% − 9.32 0.01 BUS_RESEARCHER% − 9.32 0.01 BUS_RESEARCHER% − 9.32 0.01
HERD% − 7.10 0.01 HERD% − 7.10 0.01 HERD% − 7.10 0.01
HIGH_RESEARCHER% − 11.33 0.01 HIGH_RESEARCHER% − 11.33 0.01 HIGH_RESEARCHER% − 11.33 0.01
PATENT_ICT − 12.44 0.01 PATENT_ICT − 12.44 0.01 PATENT_BIO − 11.27 0.01
PATENT_TRIADIC − 13.01 0.01 PATENT_TRIADIC − 13.01 0.01 PATENT_TRIADIC − 13.01 0.01
PATENT_PCT − 12.82 0.01 PATENT_PCT − 12.82 0.01 PATENT_PCT − 12.82 0.01
COOP_COINVENTOR% − 9.54 0.01 COOP_COINVENTOR% − 9.54 0.01 COOP_COINVENTOR% − 9.54 0.01
COOP_OWN% − 9.11 0.01 COOP_OWN% − 9.11 0.01 COOP_OWN% − 9.11 0.01
COOP_ABROAD% − 7.49 0.01 COOP_ABROAD% − 7.49 0.01 COOP_ABROAD% − 7.49 0.01
PATENT_ ENV − 12.38 0.01 PATENT_ ENV − 12.38 0.01 PATENT_PHARMA − 11.21 0.01
INCOME_LEVEL − 7.98 0.01 INCOME_LEVEL − 7.98 0.01 INCOME_LEVEL − 7.98 0.01
OECD_MEM − 8.62 0.01 OECD_MEM − 8.62 0.01 OECD_MEM − 8.62 0.01
GERD_BUS_PERFORM − 9.88 0.01 GERD_BUS_PERFORM − 9.88 0.01 GERD_BUS_PERFORM − 9.88 0.01
GERD_GOV_PERFORM − 8.44 0.01 GERD_GOV_PERFORM − 8.44 0.01 GERD_GOV_PERFORM − 8.44 0.01
GERD_HIGH_PERFORM − 11.74 0.01 GERD_HIGH_PERFORM − 11.74 0.01 GERD_HIGH_PERFORM − 11.74 0.01
GERD_OTHER_FINANCE − 11.04 0.01 GERD_OTHER_FINANCE − 11.04 0.01 GERD_OTHER_FINANCE − 11.04 0.01
GERD_GOV_FINANCE − 9.73 0.01 GERD_GOV_FINANCE − 9.73 0.01 GERD_GOV_FINANCE − 9.73 0.01
GERD_IND_FINANCE − 9.20 0.01 GERD_IND_FINANCE − 9.20 0.01 GERD_IND_FINANCE − 9.20 0.01
GERD_ABROAD_FINANCE − 7.65 0.01 GERD_ABROAD_FINANCE − 7.65 0.01 GERD_ABROAD_FINANCE − 7.65 0.01
PATENT_EPO − 14.13 0.01 PATENT_EPO − 14.13 0.01 PATENT_EPO − 14.13 0.01