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Table 1 Descriptive statistics

From: Efficiency evaluation of BRICS’s national innovation systems based on bias-corrected network data envelopment analysis

Variable full name [abbreviated name] (unit of measurement) Description Data source Type Mean (all studied countries) Std. deviation
R&D financed by Government [GERD Fin Gov] (in 2000 current PPP$) R&D financed by Government refers to the financial resources that government allocates to support research and development activities. UNESCO Institute for statistics Input (KPP) 8,544,208.14 15,600,025.48
Researchers total [Res Tot] (units) The number of researchers engaged in Research &Development (R&D). Researchers are professionals who conduct research and improve or develop concepts, theories, models techniques instrumentation, software of operational methods. R&D covers basic research, applied research and experimental development. UNESCO Institute for statistics and World Bank Input (KPP) 8,405,643 13,166,765
GERD—performed by higher education [GERD Perf Educ] (in 2000 current PPP$) GERD—performed by higher education refers to the financial resources that organizations of the education system allocate to conduct research and development activities. UNESCO Institute for statistics and World Bank Input (KPP) 241,187.52 380,647.31
Number of scientific and technical journal articles published [S&T article] (units) Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research. World Bank Output (KPP) /Input (KCP) 72,816.55 109,070.63
Patent applications (Residents) [Pat appl] (units) Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention. WIPO Output (KPP)/Input (KCP) 63,533.04 199,123.66
GERD—performed by business enterprise [Gerd Perf Bus] (in 2000 current PPP$) GERD—performed by business enterprise refers to the financial resources that business sector allocates to conduct research and development activities. UNESCO Institute for statistics Input (KCP) /Intermediate 41,777,881.65 90,936,904.5
High-technology exports [HiTech Exp] (in current US$) High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments and electrical machinery. World Bank Output (KCP)/Output (Total) 657,979,280,133.28 754,871,364,036.5
Trademark applications [TM Appl] (units) Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. WIPO Output (KCP) /Output (Total) 155,828.56 416,881.69