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Table 1 Linking Schwartz’s values to relevant ESS questions

From: Culture, innovation, and economic development

Human values ESS questions Cultural values
Self-direction Important to think new ideas and being creative Conservatism/embeddedness vs autonomy
Stimulation Important to try new and different things in life Embeddedness
Important to have a good time
Important to seek adventures and have an exciting life
Important to seek fun and things that give pleasure
Hedonism Important to understand different people Intellectual autonomy
Achievement Important to show abilities and be admired Affective autonomy
Important to be successful and that people recognize achievements
Power Important to be rich, have money, and expensive things Hierarchy vs egalitarianism
Important to do what is told and follow rules
Security Important to live in secure and safe surroundings Hierarchy
Important that government is strong and ensures safety
Conformity Important to behave properly Egalitarianism
Tradition Important to get respect from others Mastery vs harmony
Important to follow traditions and customs
Benevolence Important that people are treated equally and have equal opportunities Mastery
Important to help people and care for others well-being
Important to be loyal to friends and devote to people close
Universalism Important to care for nature and environment Harmony