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Table 2 Descriptive statistics of the variables used in the analysis

From: Culture, innovation, and economic development

  Ν Med. Stdev Min Max
Patent applications 147 4871.5 11587.7 3 49240
Gross domestic spending on R&D 153 1.6 0.8 0 4
Researchers per 1000 people employed 152 7.4 2.9 3 17
Government researchers 147 10702.7 15229.9 331 66978
Economic development 153 36.9 17.9 10.1 120.1
Conservatism/embeddedness vs autonomy Important to think new ideas and being creative 118 19.5 5.7 7.7 35.8
Important to try new and different things in life 116 13.7 4.2 5.8 29.4
Important to have a good time 118 12.5 6.5 3.3 31.5
Important to seek adventures and have an exciting life 118 5.5 2.2 1.5 14.3
Important seek fun and things that give pleasure 114 13.2 5.4 1.5 27.0
Important to understand different people 117 19.6 6.5 4.8 32.7
Important to show abilities and be admired 116 9.8 5.5 3.0 28.8
Important to be successful and that people recognize achievements 114 8.7 4.8 3.8 29.4
Hierarchy vs egalitarianism Important to be rich, have money and expensive things 116 2.2 2.3 0.4 12.2
Important to do what is told and follow rules 116 9.2 3.5 3.6 21.3
Important to live in secure and safe surroundings 116 24.0 11.5 3.6 63.7
Important that government is strong and ensures safety 116 25.7 11.5 9.1 67.6
Important to behave properly 116 15.2 6.7 6.7 33.4
Mastery vs harmony Important to get respect from others 118 10.0 6.4 2.1 35.1
Important follow traditions and customs 118 16.2 9.8 2.1 48.4
Important that people are treated equally and have equal opportunities 113 32.3 9.8 14.9 57.6
Important to help people and care for others well-being 116 25.1 8.7 8.7 48.8
Important to be loyal to friends and devote to people close 120 35.5 10.0 10.5 52.4
Important to care for nature and environment 116 31.4 8.0 13.2 54.6
  1. Ν denotes the number of observations, Med. the median, Stdev the standard deviation, Min the minimum value, and Max the maximum value