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Table 3 Pairwise correlation matrix of the ESS questions

From: Culture, innovation, and economic development

   C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 C17 C18
Important to think new ideas and being creative C1 1                  
Important to try new and different things in life C2 0.74*** 1                 
Important to have a good time C3 0.44*** 0.52*** 1                
Important to seek adventures and have an exciting life C4 0.58*** 0.67*** 0.25*** 1               
Important seek fun and things that give pleasure C5 0.64*** 0.66*** 0.34*** 0.62*** 1              
Important to understand different people C6 0.73*** 0.67*** 0.55*** 0.40*** 0.47*** 1             
Important to show abilities and be admired C7 0.41*** 0.53*** 0.21*** 0.64*** 0.53*** 0.26*** 1            
Important to be successful and that people recognize achievements C8 0.36*** 0.40*** 0.04 0.51*** 0.36*** 0.12 0.66*** 1           
Important to be rich, have money and expensive things C9 0.20** 0.14 − 0.04 0.52*** 0.12 0.00 0.48*** 0.62*** 1          
Important to do what is told and follow rules C10 0.35*** 0.42*** − 0.14 0.37*** 0.27*** 0.31*** 0.34*** 0.41*** 0.42*** 1         
Important to live in secure and safe surroundings C11 0.46*** 0.42*** 0.14* 0.47*** 0.36*** 0.41*** 0.50*** 0.54*** 0.44*** 0.49*** 1        
Important that government is strong and ensures safety C12 0.46*** 0.46*** 0.07 0.59*** 0.41*** 0.44*** 0.68*** 0.65*** 0.53*** 0.47*** 0.67*** 1       
Important to behave properly C13 0.59*** 0.72*** 0.41*** 0.61*** 0.55*** 0.65*** 0.66*** 0.39*** 0.29*** 0.49*** 0.59*** 0.76*** 1      
Important to get respect from others C14 0.50*** 0.47*** 0.24*** 0.62*** 0.51*** 0.40*** 0.79*** 0.77*** 0.63*** 0.46*** 0.68*** 0.79*** 0.70*** 1     
Important follow traditions and customs C15 0.47*** 0.40*** − 0.02 0.54*** 0.66*** 0.41*** 0.65*** 0.59*** 0.45*** 0.49*** 0.56*** 0.80*** 0.65*** 0.72*** 1    
Important that people are treated equally and have equal opportunities C16 0.76*** 0.73*** 0.52*** 0.43*** 0.50*** 0.83*** 0.39*** 0.19* 0.08 0.40*** 0.43*** 0.54*** 0.76*** 0.47*** 0.44*** 1   
Important to help people and care for others well-being C17 0.74*** 0.61*** 0.31*** 0.48*** 0.58*** 0.82*** 0.42*** 0.29*** 0.05 0.35*** 0.46*** 0.58*** 0.69*** 0.50*** 0.58*** 0.78*** 1  
Important to be loyal to friends and devote to people close C18 0.60*** 0.44*** 0.60*** 0.26*** 0.38*** 0.82*** 0.21** 0.03 − 0.05 0.09 0.28*** 0.36*** 0.47*** 0.29*** 0.32*** 0.65*** 0.71*** 1
Important to care for nature and environment C19 0.54*** 0.63*** 0.41*** 0.40*** 0.43*** 0.73*** 0.36*** 0.39*** 0.08 0.36*** 0.51*** 0.57*** 0.69*** 0.49*** 0.49*** 0.67*** 0.648*** 0,62***
  1. *, **, and *** represent statistical significance at 10%, 5%, and 1% significance level, respectively